BMT Glossary

Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT)
Type of blood and marrow transplant in which the stem cells are donated by a genetically-matched donor,called HLA matching,other than the patient. The donated cells can come from a related (family member) or unrelated donor.

Blood Stem Cells
Cells found in the blood that can grow into a white blood cell,a red blood cell or a platelet. Also called hematopoietic stem cells.

Bone marrow
The soft,spongy tissue found in the cavities of the body’s large bones bones that contains stem cells that manufacture blood cells (red cells,white cells and platelets).

Bone Marrow Stem Cell Harvest
The procedure,which takes place in the operating room,of collecting stem cells from the bone marrow,taken from the pelvic bone (hip area) of the donor for use in a transplant.

Bone Marrow Transplantation(BMT)
The transfusion of healthy bone marrow cells,collected from the donor,into a person (the recipient) after his own unhealthy bone marrow has been eliminated by high doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation.

BMTU
Bone Marrow Transplant Unit.

Class of risk of patients
Prof. Lucarelli classifies the patients in 3 classes on the basis of presence of the risk factors hepatomegaly (enlarged liver),liver fibrosis and iron chelation history. Each class has different probability of cure.

Central line or central venous catheter
It is a small soft flexible plastic tube inserted into a large vein to inject or remove fluids,drugs and blood products without sticking the patient with a needle. Blood can also be drawn t for laboratory tests. it is used in stem cell transplant.

Chemotherapy
Also known as “chemo.”.It is treatment with one or more anticancer drugs to try to stop or slow the growth of cancer cells. It is also used in bone marrow transplant patients without cancer to allow successful engraftment.

Chimerism
The state in which donor cells have durably engrafted in the recipient.
If 100% of bone marrow and blood cells comes from the donor,it is called Full donor chimerism;otherwise if some recipient’s cells are also present,it is called mixed or partial chimerism.

Congenital Disorder
Any disorder present at birth.

Cooley’s Anemia
Another name for thalassemia major.

Cord blood
The blood found in the umbilical cord and placenta of newborns,containing blood stem cells.

Cord Blood Bank
An organization that helps to collect and store umbilical cord blood for transplant.

Cord blood transplant
A procedure where umbilical blood stem cells are used in a stem cell transplant.

Donor
A volunteer who donates his stem cells for a patient who needs to to a Bone Marrow Transplant for thalassemia. It could be a related family member (parent,brother or sister) or an unrelated person.

Engraftment
The successful stage after bone marrow transplant when the transplanted (donor) stem cells start to grow and make blood cells in the patient’s (recipient’s) marrow cavities.

Erythrocytes
Red blood cells.

Graft
Infused or transplanted bone marrow and blood stem cells.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)
A condition that may develop after a bone marrow transplant in which the transplanted marrow cells (graft) attacks the patient’s (host’s) issues/organs. The skin,GI tract,liver and other organs can be affected. GVHD ranges from mild to serious and is sometimes life threatening.

Haplocompatible
If the donor and recipient share half of their HLA antigens,thee are haplocompatible.
Children inherit half of their HLA antigens from their mother and half from their father,and the they are all haplocompatible with their parents.

Harvesting
The collection of stem cells from bone marrow or peripheral blood.

Hematology
A division of medicine that studies and treats diseases of the blood and blood-forming tissues and organs.

Hematologist
A doctor who specializes in the diseases and disorders of the blood.

Hematocrit
It is the percentage of blood volume taken up by red blood cells. Also known as packed cell volume (PCV) or erythrocyte volume fraction (EVF).

Hematopoietic
The process of forming blood cells:red blood cells,white blood cells and platelets. Another term for a bone marrow transplant (BMT) is “hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT)”.

Hematopoietic stem cells
Blood forming stem cells capable of producing all the components of blood and marrow. They mature into one of three types of blood cells:white blood cells,red blood cells,or platelets.

Hemoglobin (Hgb)
The protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the cells and tissues of the body.

Hemoglobinopathy
A disorder of the bone marrow cells that produce red blood cells. Two hemoglobinopathies for which a bone marrow transplant is commonly done are thalassemia major and sickle cell disease.

HEPA filter
A High Efficiency Particulate Aerosol filter found in the transplant rooms which prevents germs from entering the room via the air system.

Hereditary
Traits that are passed down from parents to their children.

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)
The genetic “fingerprint”present in the proteins on the surface of white blood cells that make each person’s tissue unique,which allow the body to recognize self versus non-self and to help the body to identify its own cells from invading or foreign cells.
It plays a critical role in a transplant,activating the body’s immune system to respond to foreign organisms.
It defines the transplant tissue type,and the HLA A,B,C and DR proteins are important in matching patients and donors for a Bone Marrow Transplant(BMT) for thalassemia.

HLA typing test
It is a blood test of the tissue typing system,whic allows the identification of a person’s individual’s specific HLA A,B,and DR protein used for identifying compatible donors in a Bone Marrow Tranplant(BMT) for thalassemia.

HLA Typing Laboratories
Laboratories to perform HLA typing test on donor or recipient blood and cell samples.

Host
The patient’s body.

liac Crest
The “hip bone”where large quantities of bone marrow is found.

Informed consent
It is a legal document that gives the doctor permission to perform the Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT). it is an hospital form,signed by the patient,which documents an understanding of medical procedures. All potential risks and benefits must be understood by the patient prior to the signing.

Lucarelli protocol
The formal outline treatment plan,such as a description of what treatments a patient will receive and exactly when each should be given. Prof. Lucarelli has developed different protocols for the Bone Marrow Transplant(BMT) in thalassemia,based on the class of risk of the patient and his age.

Matched Unrelated Transplant
Another type of allogeneic transplant,where the stem cells are donated by someone other than a family member.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
A method of taking pictures of the body tissue using magnetic fields and radio waves.

Morbidity
Sickness,side effects and symptoms of a treatment.

MUD
Matched unrelated donor.

PICU
Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

Phlebotomy
Withdrawing blood from a vein (usually in the arm) for testing purposes.

Syngeneic transplant
A Bone Marrow Transplant(BMT) in which the donor and the recipient are identical twins.

Stem cells
A stem cell (or hematopoietic cell) is the initial phase of all blood cells. They then divide and form the different cells that make up the blood (red blood cell,white blood cells or platelets) and immune system. They are found in both the bone marrow and circulating blood.

Transfusion
The transfer of any product derived from blood cells from one individual to another.

Transplant Center
Hospital based programs with experience,staff and facilities to perform Bone Marrow Transplant(BMT).

Typing Laboratory
A testing facility that performs HLA typing.

Unrelated Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplant
A bone marrow or blood stem cell transplant where the donor is not related to the patient.

Volunteer Donor
A person who has agreed to donate marrow for a BMT.

White Blood Cell (leukocytes)
Blood cells that fight infection in the body. It is one of three main types of blood cells,along with red blood cells and platelets.